International Studies & Programs

Publications

Turkish-Azerbaijani Relations: One Nation—Two States? (Book Cover)Turkish-Azerbaijani Relations: One Nation—Two States?

Edited by Murad Ismayilov, Norman A. Graham

An east-west axis of Azerbaijan and Turkey has grown into prominence within the broader structure of regional dynamics in Eurasia over the past two decades. Yet few, including among policy advisors and policy makers in either of the two states, have attempted to look deeper into the forces that lie behind the workings of this important regional nexus, a reality that resulted in a dual crisis in bilateral relations towards the end of the second decade of interaction.

This volume investigates the underlying causes that shaped the dynamics within the structure of the bilateral relationship between Azerbaijan and Turkey. It features chapters by both scholars from the region and international experts in the field, and therefore provides both in-house and outside perspectives on developments within the complex structure of the relationship. With its analysis portfolio including historical, political, economic, socio-cultural, ideological, and international underpinnings of this regional alliance, the volume offers the most systematic and broad ranged analysis of the matter available to date.

The book will serve as an important resource for students and scholars of post-Soviet Studies, Central Asia and the Caucasus, and the Middle East, while also being of interest to those of International Relations and political science disciplines.

The Varieties of Religious Repression: Why Governments Restrict Religion (Book Cover) The Varieties of Religious Repression: Why Governments Restrict Religion

Ani Sarkissian

Religious repression-defined as the nonviolent suppression of civil and political rights-is a growing global phenomenon, but one that has not received as much attention as violent religious persecution. Though it is most often practiced in dictatorships, levels of religious repression nevertheless vary across a range of nondemocratic regimes, including illiberal democracies and competitive authoritarian states. This book argues that seemingly benign and legal forms of regulations, requirements, and restrictions on religion are important tools by which nondemocratic leaders repress independent civic activity and thus maintain their hold on power. Examining the interaction of levels of political competition and the structure of religious divisions in society, this book presents a theory of why religious repression varies across nondemocratic regimes and how political leaders decide which groups to target with it. It thus offers a new way of understanding the commonalities and differences of nondemocratic regimes by focusing on the targets of repression. Drawing on both quantitative data from 101 authoritarian states from 1990 to 2010 and case studies of 16 countries from around the world, this book explores the varieties of repression states impose on religious expression, association, and political activities and describes the obstacles these present for democratization, pluralism, and the development of an independent civil society.

Broad Is My Native Land: Repertoires and Regimes of Migration in Russia's Twentieth Century (Book Cover) Broad Is My Native Land: Repertoires and Regimes of Migration in Russia's Twentieth Century

Lewis H. Siegelbaum, Leslie Page Moch

Cornell University Press

Whether voluntary or coerced, hopeful or desperate, people moved in unprecedented numbers across Russia's vast territory during the twentieth century. Broad Is My Native Land is the first history of late imperial, Soviet, and post-Soviet Russia through the lens of migration. Lewis H. Siegelbaum and Leslie Page Moch tell the stories of Russians on the move, capturing the rich variety of their experiences by distinguishing among categories of migrants—settlers, seasonal workers, migrants to the city, career and military migrants, evacuees and refugees, deportees, and itinerants. So vast and diverse was Russian political space that in their journeys, migrants often crossed multiple cultural, linguistic, and administrative borders. By comparing the institutions and experiences of migration across the century and placing Russia in an international context, Siegelbaum and Moch have made a magisterial contribution to both the history of Russia and the study of global migration.
The authors draw on three kinds of sources: letters to authorities (typically appeals for assistance); the myriad forms employed in communication about the provision of transportation, food, accommodation, and employment for migrants; and interviews with and memoirs by people who moved or were moved, often under the most harrowing of circumstances. Taken together, these sources reveal the complex relationship between the regimes of state control that sought to regulate internal movement and the tactical repertoires employed by the migrants themselves in their often successful attempts to manipulate, resist, and survive these official directives.

Eurasian Political Economy & Public Policy Studies

The Eurasian Political Economy and Public Policy Studies series focuses on the neglected but clearly emerging region of Eurasia, with an emphasis on trends and challenges in political economy and public policy— especially the challenges of the twin transitions of democratization and economic liberalization in the post- Soviet space.

 

After the Czars and Commissars: Journalism in Authoritarian Post-Soviet Central Asia (Book Cover) After the Czars and Commissars: Journalism in Authoritarian Post-Soviet Central Asia

Edited by Eric Freedman, and Richard Shafer

From Czarism and Bolshevism to the current post-communist era, the media in Central Asia has been tightly constrained. Though the governments in the region assert that a free press is permitted to operate, research has shown this to be untrue. In all five former Soviet republics of Central Asia, the media has been controlled, suppressed, punished, and often outlawed. This enlightening collection of essays investigates the reasons why these countries have failed to develop independent and sustainable press systems. It documents the complex relationship between the press and governance, nation-building, national identity, and public policy. In this book, scholars explore the numerous and broad-reaching implications of media control in a variety of contexts, touching on topics such as Internet regulation and censorship, press rights abuses, professional journalism standards and self-censorship, media ownership, ethnic newspapers, blogging, Western broadcasting into the region, and coverage of terrorism.

 

Democracy and Autocracy in Eurasia: Georgia in Transition (Book Cover) Democracy and Autocracy in Eurasia: Georgia in Transition

Edited by Irakly Areshidze, and Norman A. Graham

Written by an insider and leading authority, Democracy and Autocracy in Eurasia is a compelling chronicle of the political development of the Republic of Georgia since the collapse of the Soviet Union. Its author is uniquely positioned to tell this story, which draws on his in-depth understanding of Georgia's recent history and on his own involvement in the events that he recounts.
Many politicians, pundits, and scholars in the West have hailed Georgia for its transition to democracy, lavishing particular praise on the "Rose Revolution" of November 2003, during which the long- standing president Eduard Shevardnadze resigned and handed over his office to the charismatic young leader Mikheil Saakashvili. The Rose Revolution takes its name from the flowers that Saakashvili and his supporters carried with them when they publicly disputed the results of the parliamentary elections of early November. Images of tens of thousands of people protesting outside the Parliament were broadcast throughout the world and have encouraged the impression that the Rose Revolution was a genuine revolt of the electorate that led to sweeping changes throughout the government. This is simply a myth, according to Irakly Areshidze, who was a high-ranking political consultant in Georgia during the time of the revolution.
Supported by nearly 100 interviews, Areshidze argues that the change of power in 2003 was not a step forward for democracy but rather a dramatic move backward. He contends that Georgia was well on its way toward democratic rule before the disputed elections of November and that the Rose Revolution actually subverted the nation's political evolution. Dubbing the alleged revolution "an extra-constitutional power grab," Areshidze reveals what went wrong in Georgia and why. This is a surprising, compelling book, essential and instructive reading for everyone who cares about the future of democracy around the globe.

 

Gender Politics in Post-Communist Eurasia (Book Cover) Gender Politics in Post-Communist Eurasia

Edited by Linda Racioppi, and Katherine O'Sullivan See

Reflecting on two decades of experience, Gender Politics in Post-Communist Eurasia offers new and important insights into contemporary global gender politics by leading scholars from Central Asia, Europe, and the United States - into the contemporary dynamics of gender politics in a critical area of the world.
The volume includes case studies of Romania, Russia, and Tajikistan; comparative analyses of Azerbaijan, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan, and Uzbekistan; and regional examinations of Eastern and Central Europe and Central Asia. The interdisciplinary contributions focus on issues such as the influence of global and regional norms on women's rights, the impact of international political economy on women's social and economic positions, and the implications of international and regional migration and human trafficking for women's lives.
Gender Politics in Post-Communist Eurasia provides wide-ranging analyses that capture the distinctiveness of specific countries and regions while illuminating the interplay between the local and the global in gender politics.

 

In the Shadow of Russia: Reform in Kazakahstan and UzbekistanIn the Shadow of Russia: Reform in Kazakahstan and Uzbekistan

Edited by Pamela Blackmon

In the twenty years since the dissolution of the Soviet Union, the fifteen new independent republics have embarked on unprecedented transitions from command economies into market-oriented economies.
Important motivating factors for their reform efforts included issues of geographic and economic proximity to Europe and the influence of the pre-Soviet era histories in those countries. In the Shadow of Russia builds upon the conceptual frameworks that include geography and policy choices about economic integration in an analysis of the reform efforts of Kazakhstan and Uzbekistan.
Blackmon's book addresses such central questions as: How and in what areas has a republic's previous level of integration with Soviet-era Russia influenced its present economic orientation? What are the contributing factors that explain the differences in how leaders ( of a similar regime type) developed economic reform policies? To answer these questions, the author utilizes information from both the economic and the political literature on post-communist transitions, as well from political speeches.

 

The Political Economy of Transition in Eurasia: Democratization and Economic Liberalization in a Global Eonomy (Book Cover) The Political Economy of Transition in Eurasia: Democratization and Economic Liberalization in a Global Eonomy

Edited by Norman A. Graham, and Folke Lindahl

The Political Economy of Transition in Eurasia looks at the progress in democratization and economic liberalization of the 27 post- communist countries of Eurasia with some guarded optimism. Belarus, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan, and Uzbekistan are clearly unabashed authoritarian regimes with only sporadic ventures toward political accountability and very limited effort to liberalize economically. Azerbaijan, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, and Russia have made more substantial moves, particularly on the economic side, but the regimes seem to be undergoing political retrenchment. Hungary, Poland, the Czech Republic, Slovenia, and the three Baltic States clearly have competitive democracies with effective political institutions and processes and functioning market economies. However, as some of the contributors suggest, some very serious challenges and unmet expectations remain. It is clear that the "dual transition" of democratization and economic liberalization has been a challenge for all the regimes that have seriously attempted it.


Central Asia and Azerbaijan: Falling Far Short on the 60th Anniversary of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights

Eric Freedman, International Studies and Programs, School of Journalism and Timur Kocaoglu, Center for Strategic Studies, Koc University, Istanbul, Turkey

Whither Soviet History?: "Some Reflections on Recent Anglophone Historiography"

Lewis H. Siegelbaum, Department of History, Michigan State University
Brown Bag at Center for European and Russian Studies, March 20, 2009
NB: This is a first (and very rough) draft that I am making available to provoke thought and comment. Please do not quote without my permission. Comments and suggestions should be sent to siegelba(at)msu.edu.

From Wary Collaboration to Wary Competition? U.S.-Russian Security Cooperation Since the End of the Cold War (PDF)

by Sherman W. Garnett (James Madison College, Michigan State University), Norman A. Graham (CERES, James Madison College, Michigan State University)

In September 1990, President George H.W. Bush, echoing Wilsonian sentiments of nearly a century before, called for a New World Order. Believing as others did back then that the end of the Cold War between the US and USSR offered real promise for ... (pp.1-52).

(Paper prepared for presentation at the Conference in celebration of 200 years of Russia-U.S. Diplomatic Relations, November 8-9, 2007, Moscow.)

Implementing and Enforcing Regional Environmental Policies in Comparative Perspective (PDF)

by Norman A. Graham (CERES, James Madison College, Michigan State University), Anna K. Graham (Attorney at Law)

The struggle for a comprehensive EU Constitution raised attention to the challenge of focusing initiatives in "technical" or practical cooperation that are both closer to the real (albeit prosaic) interests of European citizens and worthy of serious attention in the near term. EU member states increasingly confront the realities of ...(pp.1-36) For the complete paper , visit Environmental Challenges Policy Rev (PDF)*

(Paper prepared for presentation at the Annual Conference of the International Studies Association, March 26-29, 2008, San Francisco.)